The Malla Dynasty was a Newari Dynasty that ruled Nepal from the twelfth century to the eighteenth century. Malla kings of Nepal visited Lumbini in the 11th and 12th century.
The Mallas were the ruling clan of the Malla Mahajanapada in North Eastern India, probably near today's Gorakhpur. The Mallas were originally monarchial and later became republican maintaining the title of King. The Mallas were allies to the Lichhavis both of whom later relocated to Kathmandu valley because their territories were usurped by the Magadh empire.
Much of Malla history is in the form of chronicles according to which in Nepal, the first Malla king was Abhaya Malla, the son of Ari Deva.
Malla ruler Ananta Malla (r.1274 - 1310) was succeeded by his son Jayananda Deva (r.1310 - 1320). His son Jayaraja Deva (1317 - 1361) became king in 1347. During his reign Sultan of Bengal, Shams-ud-Din Ilyas Shah invaded Nepal. Jayaraja Deva was succeeded by his son Jayarjuna Malla (r. 1361 - 1382). Jayarjuna was overthrown by Jayasthiti Malla in 1382. Jayashtiti Malla (r.1382- 1395) was the most capable ruler of this dynasty who curbed the powers of the feudal chiefs. He is known for structuring of Newar society by implementing the caste system and fixing the status of the different castes. He took the titles Dayitanarayana and Asuranarayana. He had three sons who ruled conjointly after their father's death but later his youngest son Jayajyotir Malla became the sole ruler (r.1395 - 1428).
Jayajyotir Malla was succeeded by his son Jayayakshya Malla or Yakshya Malla (r.1428 - 1482). He was the last Malla king of united Nepal, who divided his kingdom amongst his sons into the new states of Kantipur, Lalitpur, and Bhaktapur.
The Malla dynasty rulers ruled the Kathmandu valley till Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered the valley from them in 1768-69 CE. The last Malla kings were Jayaprakash Malla of Kantipur, Tejnarsingh Malla of Lalitpur and Ranajit Malla of Bhaktapur.
Most noted Malla kings were: Pratap Malla of Kantipur, Siddhi Narasimha Malla of Lalitpur, and Bhupatindra Malla of Bhaktapur